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By combining the organic-inorganic hybridization, wet phase inversion, and electrospinning, novel electrospun polyurethane (PU) membranes with in-situ generated nano-TiO2 were prepared, which satisfied the requirements of an ideal wound dressing. The morphology of the PU-TiO2 mats and the cross sectional morphologies of the membranes were characterized by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The average diameter of the individual fibers obtained from the solutions was 341±12 nm. SEM micrographs with higher magnification further showed that the in-situ generated TiO2 particles were well-separated and dispersed homogeneously in the membranes. The average sizes of TiO2 particles were increased from 31 to 57 nm, with the increase of nano-TiO2 concentration. The water vapor transmission rates (WVTRs) of the membranes were in the range of 373.55-3121.86 g/m2 ·d and decreased gradually with the increase of nano-TiO2 concentration. The water absorption of various PU membranes was in the range
To overcome the bacterial infection which may leads to strain the wounds progressively, wound healing medicinal plant was choosen to treat the infection caused by bacteria. Though the medicinal wound healing plants are resistant to bacteria, the bare plant extract may face poor contact with the wound. This necessitate for a carrier for the plant extract. Polycaprolactone (PCL) electrospun nanofibers have been selected as carrier in this work due to its beneficial surface property and biocompatibility. Extract from the medicinal plant Tridax procumbens was immobilized on PCL electrospun nanofibers. The PCL nanofiber and Tridax procumbens extract immobilized nanofibers were characterized by SEM, XRD and EDAX. The morphology, porosity, swelling and weight loss percentage of the electrospun nanofibers have been investigated. The Tridax procumbens-PCL nanofibers were analyzed for its anti-bacterial activity. The results of the work confess that the scaffolds act as an enhancer of wound heal
Wound care treatment is a serious issue faced by the medical staffs due to its variety and complexity. Wound dressings are typically used to manage the various types of wounds. In this study, polyurethane (PU) fibers containing mupirocin (Mu), a commonly used antibiotic in wound care, were fabricated via electrospinning technique. The aim of this study was to develop biomedical electrospun fiber scaffolds for preventing wound infections with good compatibility and to demonstrate their applications as anti-infective burn wound dressings. The surface morphology of fibers was obtained by scanning electron microscopy. FT-IR spectra, water vapor transmission rate, and drug release study in vitro were tested to demonstrate the fiber scaffold characteristic. The prepared PU/Mu composite scaffolds had satisfactory antibacterial activity especially against Staphylococcus aureus. The cell studies revealed that the scaffolds were biocompatible and safe for cell attachment. Histological and immuno
Produced through electrospinning, poly(l-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) membranes, which have a porous structure and are biodegradable, are of interest in various medical fields. The porous-structured electrospun membrane is particularly interesting because of several favorable properties as follows: it exudes fluid from the wound, does not build up under the wound covering, and does not cause wound desiccation. Moreover, extracellular matrix (ECM)-based structures derived by tissue decellularization have application as engineered tissue scaffolds and as supports for cellular regeneration. In particular, heart decellularized ECM (hdECM) has various pro-angiogenic factors that can induce angiogenesis for wound healing. In this regard, a nanofibrous electrospun hdECM-based hybrid scaffold (NEhdHS), which is a PLCL membrane, including hdECM as an active agent, was tested as a wound dressing to assess its fundamental biochemical and physical features in wound healing. Use of NEhdHS with i
This report demonstrates an in vitro method for screening wound dressing candidates that can minimize the use of animals for developing better methods for wound care. The development of materials and formulations for wound dressings, an important application of biomaterials, is laboriously and ethically challenging because of the use of a large number of animals. A method for rapid and effective screening of wound dressings in vitro, therefore, is in great need. A cell‐on‐a‐chip model was used to simulate the cutaneous wound in vitro and screen the performances of several electrospun fibrous wound dressings in enhancing wound healing. For comparison, the performances of wound dressings were also evaluated in a rat model. It was found that the results acquired by microchip model corroborates well with animal experiments. It is the first time, as far as we know, that a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo results is reported for fibrous wound dressings. The cell‐on‐a‐chip wound
In this work, zein/Graphene oxide (GO) composite nanofibers were fabricated. Furthermore, tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) was incorporated in dressings by loading on GO nanosheets. The morphology, mechanical properties, and biological activity of the composites were characterized. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed that the nanofiber diameter decreased with increased GO loading. Tensile testing indicated that incorporation of GO up to 1 wt% significantly increased the mechanical properties of the zein nanofibers. Drug loaded nanofibers showed a significantly prolonged release profile compared to zein nanofibers. Additionally, cellular studies demonstrated that GO content up to 1 wt% enhanced adhesion and proliferation of cells.
In this study, nanofiber meshes were produced from aqueous mixtures of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and honey via electrospinning. The Electrospinning process was performed at different PVAs to honey ratios (100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, and 60/40). Dexamethasone sodium phosphate was selected as an anti‐inflammatory drug and incorporated in the electrospinning solutions. Its release behavior was determined. Uniform and smooth nanofibers were formed, independent of the honey content. In case honey content increased up to 40%, some spindle‐like beads on the fibers were observed. The diameter of electrospun fibers decreased as the ratio of honey increased. The release characteristics of the model drug from both the PVA and PVA/honey (80/20) nanofibrous mats were studied and statistical analysis was performed. All electrospun fibers exhibited a large initial burst release at a short time after incubation. The release profile was similar for both PVA and PVA/honey (80/20) drug‐loaded nanofibers.
The skin prevents infection and contamination entering the body, and wound dressings are one of the most serious tools in wound healing. In the present work, the biocompatibility and swelling tendency of nanofibers increased by adding alginates to a polymer solution is investigated. Glutaraldehyde was used in different methods to strengthen nanofibers, and it was found that a better cross-link was made from the combination of glutaraldehyde with the polymer solution before electrospinning. As the use of drug accelerates the healing process, dexpanthenol was added to the polymeric composition of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium alginate (SA) using a blending method. The resulting composition was then used as the core of the nanofibers, and drug release was controlled by different shells. The results showed that the presence of chitosan 1% (w/v) in the shell side of nanofibers helped better control the drug release. Also, the drug release from dexpanthenol-loaded wound dressing followe
In this study, the synthesis and application of biocompatible steviol glycosides based polyurethane/poly (ε‐caprolactone) (PU/PCL) fibers was performed by electrospinning as a potential wound dressing materials that can be used for the closure of nonhealing wounds. During electrospinning, steviol glycoside‐based polyurethane structures were used in blend formation with poly (ε‐caprolactone) for easy producibility. Steviol glycosides are a natural abundant and easily accessible source as the main component of the wound dressing material due to their free hydroxyl groups, high biocompatibility, and hydrophilicity. The structure of steviol glycosides is composed of saccharide units and the free OH groups. Thus, steviol glycosides act as a crosslinker within the polyurethane structure and provides mechanical strength. For the production of steviol glycosides based PU/PCL fibers first, the steviol glycosides as a monomer were isolated from the stevia rebudiana. Then, polyurethane structures
Electrospun fibrous membranes have the potential to be effective wound dressings for promoting wound healing. However, the fabrication and application of the common electrospun fibrous wound dressings are usually complicated and separated. Here, electrospun zein/clove essential oil (CEO) fibrous membranes are fabricated and applied as a potential wound dressing through in situ electrospinning process by a portable electrospinning device. The in situ electrospinning process can directly electrospin zein/CEO membranes onto a wound site to cover the wound well and improve the convenience and comfort in use. The as‐spun zein/CEO membranes show a porous structure and exhibit higher gas permeability at 168.2 ± 43.3 mm s−1, with superhydrophilicity to absorb the wound exudate and good biocompatibility as well as antibacterial effects to protect from infection. Moreover, the mice wound model study suggests that in situ electrospun zein/CEO promotes the wound healing process.
The first results of electrospinning fibrinogen nanofibers for use as a tissue-engineering scaffold, wound dressing, or hemostatic bandage are reported. Structures composed of fibrinogen fibers with an average diameter of 80−700 nm were electrospun from solutions composed of human or bovine fibrinogen fraction I dissolved in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol and minimal essential medium (Earle's salts). In summary, the electrospinning process is a simple and efficient technique for the fabrication of 3D structures composed of fibrinogen fibers, as would be present in the physiologic environment.
Wound dressing materials which are capable of meeting the demands of accelerating wound closure and promoting wound healing process have being highly desired. Electrospun nanofibrous materials show great application potentials for wound healing owing to relatively large surface area, better mimicry of native extracellular matrix, adjustable waterproofness and breathability, and programmable drug delivery process. In this review article, we begin with a discussion of wound healing process and current commercial wound dressing materials. Then, we emphasize on electrospun nanofibrous materials for wound dressing, covering the efforts for controlling fiber alignment and morphology, constructing 3D scaffolds, developing waterproof-breathable membrane, governing drug delivery performance, and regulating stem cell behavior. Finally, we finish with challenges and future prospects of electrospun nanofibrous materials for wound dressings.