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Electrospun poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) fiber mats containing curcumin were prepared by electrospinning. Varying amounts of as-loaded curcumin at 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0% w/w (based on the weight of PLLA) were added in the PLLA solution. Results showed that the obtained fibers were smooth with no surface aggregates, indicating complete incorporation of curcumin. Average diameter of the fibers ranged between ~333 and ~386 nm. Water retention and weight loss of neat and curcumin-loaded PLLA fiber mats in phosphate buffer solution containing Tween 80 and methanol were not significantly different with increasing submersion time. Released amount of curcumin from curcumin-loaded PLLA fiber mats increased with higher loadings of curcumin. Antioxidant activity of the as-released curcumin from the fiber mats ranged between ~18% and ~53%. The materials were non-toxic to human adult dermal fibroblast (HDFa) cells and supported cell attachment and proliferation. These materials showed potential for wound
Novel birch bark dry extract (TE)-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber mats intended for wound therapy were developed through an electrospinning process. Colloidal dispersions containing TE as the active substance were prepared by the high-pressure homogenization (HPH) technique using hydrogenated phospholipids as stabilizer. Subsequently, the colloidal dispersions were blended with aqueous PVA solutions in the ratio of 60:40 (wt.%) and electrospun to form the nanofiber mats. Fiber morphology examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that fibers were uniform and achieved diameters in the size range of 300–1586 nm. Confocal Raman spectral imaging gave good evidence that triterpenes were encapsulated within the electrospun mats. In vitro drug release and ex vivo permeation studies indicated that the electrospun nanofibers showed a sustained release of betulin, the main component of birch bark dry extract, making the examined dressings highly applicable for several wound
To accomplish a rapid wound healing it is necessary to develop an asymmetric membrane with interconnected pores consisting of a top layer that prevents rapid dehydration of the wound and bacteria penetration and a sub-layer with high absorption capacity and bactericidal properties. Polycaprolactone (PCL)/polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) asymmetric membranes loaded with the bactericidal monoterpene carvacrol (CRV) were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Mechanical properties in dry and wet conditions and fluid handling behavior were also assessed. In addition, biological studies regarding their bactericidal effects, cytocompatibility and wound closure properties were also developed. Loading efficiencies of 40–50% were achieved in the prepared samples and 85–100% of the loaded CRV was released in simulated wound pH evolution medium. The significant inhibition of Gram negative (Escherichia coli S17) and Gram positive (Staphyl
A bilayer membrane (GKU) with a commercial polyurethane wound dressing as an outer layer and electrospun gelatin/keratin nanofibrous mat as an inner layer was fabricated as a novel wound dressing. Scanning electron micrographs showed that gelatin/keratin nanofibers had a uniform morphology and bead-free structure with average fiber diameter of 160.4 nm. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay using L929 fibroblast cells indicated that the residues released from the gelatin/keratin composite nanofibrous mat accelerated cell proliferation. Cell attachment experiments revealed that adhered cells spread better and migrated deeper into the gelatin/keratin nanofibrous mat than that into the gelatin nanofibrous mat. In animal studies, compared with the bilayer membrane without keratin, gauze and commercial wound dressing, Comfeel®, GKU membrane gave much more number of blood vessels and a greater reduction in wound area at 4 days, and better wound repair at 14 days wit
Electrospun nanofibrous mats based on biopolymers have been widely investigated for tissue engineering in recent years, primarily due to remarkable morphological similarity to the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). In this research, electrospun PVA/Chitosan/Starch nanofibrous mats were fabricated using electrospinning method for wound dressing application. The prepared nanofibrous mats were then cross-linked to enhanced the water resistance and also optimize the biodegradation rate followed by characterization and evaluation of their properties as wound dressings. The morphological studies performed by SEM and AFM showed that uniform bead-free electrospun nanofibrous mats were formed. The structural properties of the fabricated mats were characterized by FTIR. The proper porosity and balanced water absorption and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of obtained dressings, demonstrate their ability in providing suitable moist environment for wound, result in the appropriate wound breat
Dextran is a versatile biomacromolecule for preparing electrospun nanofibrous membranes by blending with either water-soluble bioactive agents or hydrophobic biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications. In this study, an antibacterial electrospun scaffold was prepared by electrospinning of a solution composed of dextran, polyurethane (PU) and ciprofloxacin HCl (CipHCl) drug. The obtained nanofiber mats have good morphology. The mats were characterized by various analytical techniques. The interaction parameters between fibroblasts and the PU–dextran and PU–dextran–drug scaffolds such as viability, proliferation, and attachment were investigated. The results indicated that the cells interacted favorably with the scaffolds especially the drug-containing one. Moreover, the composite mat showed good bactericidal activity against both of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Overall, our results conclude that the introduced scaffold might be an ideal biomaterial for wound dressin
Wound dressings are very useful materials for accelerating the wound healing process. In this study, nanofibrous wound dressings were produced from blending solution of Poly-lactic acid(PLA)/Chitosan(C)/Starch(S)/Zinc oxide(Z) by electrospinning method. Morphology, chemical interaction, mechanical, water uptake and weight loss tests were performed on each samples. Moreover, the biocompatibility of primary dermal fibroblast (ATCC, PCS-201-012) on prepared wound dressings was investigated with MTT assays in vitro, and the samples were found suitable for cell viability and proliferation. These results suggest that produced nanofibrous wound dressings can be promising candidate for wound dressing applications.
Recently, many studies have been undertaken on the wet spinning and electrospinning of silk because wet-spun fibers and electrospun webs of silk can be applied in the biomedical and cosmetic fields owing to the good biocompatibility of silk. The rheological properties of silk solution are important because they strongly affect the spinning performance of the silk solution and the structures of resultant fibrous materials. Therefore, as a preliminary study on the effect of solvent composition on the rheological properties of silk fibroin (SF) solution and structure of the resultant film, in the reported work, methanol was added to the SF formic acid solution. A small amount of methanol (i.e. 2%) added to the SF formic acid solution significantly altered the rheological properties of the solution: its shear viscosity increased by 10 folds at low shear and decreased on increasing the shear rate, demonstrating shear thinning behavior of the SF solution. Dynamic tests for the SF solution in
Over the past few decades, electrospun materials have been widely studied and their applications in various industrial level fields are largely exploited. The simplicity of electrospinning process, the unique features, and diverse nature of electrospun fibers make this technique attractive for different applications. At present, electrospun materials, electrospinning apparatus, and their technological solutions are rapidly moving toward commercialization. Dedicated companies are making efforts to commercialize electrospun products, laboratory and industrial‐scale apparatus and equipment for electrospinning. The main focus is on the modification of electrospinning apparatus and conditions for the development of electrospun fibers with various morphologies, shapes, structures, and sizes, so that the resultant nanofibers should possess broad functionalities to get commercial interest. This chapter mainly focus on the present potential applications of electrospinning and electrospun materi
In the presented study, the synthesis of a nanosorbent for micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) to extract and preconcentrate copper and lead from aqueous solutions was described. Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) were synthesized through a green method and used to synthesize the nanosorbent consisting of citric acid (CA) as a ligand and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a helping polymer. PVA/CA/Au NPs electrospun nanofibers with a good extraction capacity and selectivity toward copper and lead were prepared in a single fluid solution and synthesized through an electrospinning strategy. Also, Au NPs were embedded and decorated in the nanofiber structure and the extraction efficiencies of the two kinds of sorbents were compared to each other. The characterization of NPs and nanosorbents was performed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and element mapping images. Herein, th
The dropping mechanism in the electrospinning process is elucidated. A moving jet becomes thinner at the initial stage due to the acceleration caused by the electrostatic force. When the jet diameter reaches a threshold, beyond which the jet breaks into drops and daughter jets, dropping occurs. The drops will finally form microspheres. Effects of applied voltage, flow rate, polymer’s concentration and receptor’s distance on the dropping process are theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified. This paper gives a general strategy for fabrication of smooth fiber, microspheres, and their mixture.
We present the successful application of emulsion electrospinning for the encapsulation of a model for highly volatile fragrances, namely (R)-(+)-limonene in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibrous matrix. The influence of the emulsion formulation and of its colloidal properties on the fiber morphology, as well as on the limonene encapsulation efficiency, is described. The release profile of the fragrance from the electrospun nanofibers over a fifteen days range shows that this type of nanofibrous matrices with a high fragrance loading capacity is of great potential for applications in various fields, such as cosmetics or food packaging.